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The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem in three waves of attacks. King Nebuchadnezzar burns Solomon's Temple in 586 BCE.
King Cyrus the Great allows the Israelites to return from the Babylonian captivity and rebuild the Temple. The first wave, led by Sheshbazzar, repatriates and reestablishes sacrificial worship on the site of the destroyed Temple. The second wave is led by Zerubbabel, the appointed governor of Judah and the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak (Haggai 1:12).
The Second Temple is built on the 6th year of Darius the Great.
Tolerant to other faiths, pagan Emperor Julian the Apostate announces to the Jews that they are allowed to return to "holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt".
Church of the Holy Sepulchre is built.
Jerusalem falls to Persians led by General Shahrbaraz. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is burned and the True Cross is captured. "Ever since the Persian occupation, ... the Jews had resumed worship on the (Temple Mount) platform ..." (K. Armstrong: p. 229)
Nachmanides goes to Jerusalem and prays at the Western Wall.
The second conquest by the Mamelukes.
The visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssianians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a sect possibly Druzes, Mamelukes, and "the most accursed of all", Jews. Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".
The first census: 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
The first Jewish neighborhood (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) is built outside the Old City walls. 
Mea Shearim is built.
Theodore Herzl meets German Kaiser Wilhelm outside city walls.
Bezalel Academy of Art and Design is founded.
British Army led by General Allenby captures the city.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) is founded (inaugurated in 1925) on Mount Scopus on the land owned by the Jewish National Fund. 1923: The first lecture is delivered by the first president of World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) Albert Einstein.
Jerusalem is under British military administration.
King David Hotel is opened. The first issue of The Palestine Post is published.
King David Hotel is blown up by militant Irgun Tzvai-Leumi Zionists, killing 91 people.
1947 November 29
1947 UN Partition Plan calls for internationalization of Jerusalem (UN General Assembly Resolution 181).
1948 Arab-Israeli War
April 9: Deir Yassin Massacre
May 13: Hadassah medical convoy massacre.
May 14: The term of the British Mandate ends.
May 14: The State of Israel is established at 4 pm
May 28: The Jewish Quarter of the Old City falls to Arab Legion under Glubb Pasha.
July 26: West Jerusalem is proclaimed territory of Israel.
1949: Jerusalem is proclaimed the capital of Israel. The Knesset moves to Jerusalem from Tel-Aviv. Jordan prevents access to the Western Wall and Mount Scopus, in violation of the 1949 Armistice Agreements.
King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by Arab extremists on the Temple Mount.
The Jerusalem Law is enacted leading to UN Security Council Resolution 478.
Final Agreement between Israel and Palestine cannot be achieved, largely because the Palestinian side rejects every compromise on Jerusalem suggested by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
Israeli Sephardic Religious Party, Shas, refuses to form part of the government without a guarantee that there will be no negotiations that will lead to a partition of Jerusalem.
↑Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honoured, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honour."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the “precedence” granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the metropolis referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."