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Jupiter, the sky father of Greco-Roman mythology

The sky has important religious significance. Most polytheistic religions have a deity whose portfolio includes or is even limited to the sky. This position is usually reserved for the deity who reigns over the others, or at least is one of the most powerful, and incorporates the concept of the Sky Father.

Ancient Near East

Ancient Semitic religion

Egyptian mythology

  • Amun, god of creation and the wind
  • Anhur, originally a foreign war god who became associated with the sky god, Shu
  • Horus, god of the sun, sky, kings and war
  • Nut, goddess of the sky
  • Shu, god of the wind and air

Hurrian mythology

  • Hepit, goddess of the sky
  • Teshub, god of the sky and storms

Mesopotamian mythology

  • An, goddess of the sky
  • Anshar, god of the sky
  • Anu, king of the gods, associated with the sky, heaven and constellations
  • Beelshamen, god of the sky
  • Enlil, god of breath, wind, loft, and breadth

Armenian mythology

  • Barsamin, god of the sky or weather

Europe

Basque mythology

  • Aide, goddess of the air

Celtic mythology

  • Latobius, sky and mountain god equated with the Greek gods Zeus and Ares

Etruscan mythology

  • Ani, god of the sky
  • Tinia, god of the sky

Finnish mythology

  • Ilmatar, virgin spirit of the air
  • Jumala, god of the sky
  • Perkele, supreme sky and thunder god
  • Ukko, god of sky, weather, crops (harvest) and other natural things

Greek mythology

  • Aether, primeval god of the upper air
  • Chaos, the nothingness from which all else sprang, she also represented the lower atmosphere which surrounded the earth
  • Hera, queen of heaven and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, empires, air and the sky
  • Iris, goddess of the rainbow and divine messenger
  • Nephelai, cloud nymphs
  • Theia, goddess of sight and the shining light of the clear blue sky
  • Uranus, primeval god of the sky
  • Zeus, king of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky, weather, thunder, law, order and fate

Roman mythology

  • Caelus, personification of the sky, equivalent to the Greek Ouranos
  • Jupiter, king of heaven and god of the sky and weather, equivalent to the Greek Zeus

Sami mythology

  • Horagalles, god of the sky, thunder and lightning, the rainbow, weather, oceans, lakes, human life, health and wellbeing

Slavic mythology

  • Stribog, god of the winds, sky and air
  • Triglav, a triple god whose three heads represent sky, earth and underworld

Thracian mythology

  • Sabazios, sky father

South Asia

East and Southeast Asia

Japanese mythology

  • Marici, goddess of the heavens

Māori mythology

  • Ao, god of light and the sky
  • Rangi, sky father
  • Tane-rore, personification of shimmering air
  • Tāwhirimātea, god of weather, including thunder and lightning, wind, clouds and storms
  • Uenuku, god of rainbows

Thai and Lao Mythology

  • Phaya Thaen (Thai: พญาแถน,) the sky personified with a rank equivalent to marquess (Thai Phraya,) the protagonist in a Rocket Festival

Central Asia

Turkic mythology

  • Tengri, god of the sky

Udmurt mythology

  • Inmar, god of the heavans

Americas

Arctic

  • Ataksak, goddess of the sky
  • Negafook, god of weather systems
  • Torngarsuk, god of the sky

Native American mythology

  • Atahensic, Iroquois sky goddess who fell to Earth at the time of creation

Maya mythology

Australia and Oceania

Australia

  • Altjira, Arrernte creator and sky god
  • Baiame, south-east Australian creator and sky god
  • Binbeal, god of rainbows
  • Bunjil, Kulin creator and sky god

Oceania mythology

  • Abeguwo, Melanesian sky goddess
  • Amai-te-rangi, sky demon of Mangaia
  • Atua I Kafika, supreme sky god of Polynesian mythology
  • Ira, Polynesian sky goddess
  • Laufakana'a, Tongan creator god and sky father
  • Tangaloa, Tongan sky god

Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Achamán, Guanche creator and sky god
  • Achuhucanac, Guanche rain god, associated with the sky god Achamán
  • Badessy, Vodou loa associated with the sky
  • Denka, Dinka god of sky, rain and fertility
  • Khonvoum, supreme creator god and sky father of Mbuti Pygmies
  • Mulungu, Nyamwezi creator and sky god
  • Numakulla, a pair of creator and sky gods
  • Shango, Yoruba sky father and thunder god
  • Umvelinqangi, Zulu sky god
  • Utixo, Khoikhoi sky god
  • Xamaba, creator and sky god of the Heikum of South Africa
  • Olorun, supreme deity, god of the sky, and heaven

See also

sv:Höggud

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