THE EASTERN CHRISTIANITY PORTAL
Showcased Eastern Christian content
refers collectively to the Christian
traditions and churches which developed in the Balkans
, Eastern Europe
, Asia Minor
, the Middle East
, Northeastern Africa
and southern India
over several centuries of religious antiquity. Eastern Christians have a shared tradition, but they became divided (SEE: SCHISM)
during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about christology
and fundamental theology. In general terms, one can identify four branches or families of Eastern Christianity, each of which has distinct theology
. They are: the Assyrian Church of the East
, the Eastern Orthodox Churches
, the Oriental Orthodox Churches
, and the Eastern Catholic Churches
- the latter being in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church
All of the Eastern branches, as well as the Western churches, share a common Christian tradition and most of the same Christian Biblical canon. The Eastern branches also share traditional practices in common which are not shared by the Western churches. The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity have as much, if not more, to do with culture, language, and politics as theology. The Assyrian Church of the East became estranged from the church of the Roman Empire in the years following the Council of Ephesus (431), Oriental Orthodoxy separated after the Council of Chalcedon (451), and the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church is usually dated to 1054. This event is referred to as the Great Schism.
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
: Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей
, Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey
), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad
, or ROCOR
) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church
It was formed as a jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy as a response against the policy of Bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and separated from the Russian Church of the Moscow Patriarchate in 1927 after an imprisoned Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow pledged the church’s qualified loyalty to the Bolshevik state. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia officially signed the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate on May 17, 2007 restoring the canonical link between the churches. Critics of the reunification argue that the issue of KGB infiltration of the Moscow Patriarchate church hierarchy has not been addressed by the Russian Orthodox Church.
The Church has over 400 parishes worldwide, and an estimated membership of over 400,000 people. Within the ROCOR there are 13 hierarchs, and also monasteries and nunneries in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and South America.
Saint John Chrysostom
(c. 347–407, Greek
: Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος
, was an important Early Church Father
. He is known for his eloquence in preaching
and public speaking
, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
, and his ascetic
sensibilities. After his death (or, according to some sources, during his life) he was given the Greek
, meaning "golden mouthed", rendered in English as Chrysostom.
The Eastern Orthodox Church honors him as a saint (feast days: November 13 and January 27) and count him among the Three Holy Hierarchs (feast day, January 30), together with Saints Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzus. Churches of the Western tradition, including some Anglican provinces and parts of the Lutheran Church, commemorate him on September 13. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria recognizes John Chrysostom as a saint (feast days: 16 Thout and 17 Hathor).
Chrysostom is known in Christianity chiefly as a preacher, theologian and liturgist, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among his sermons, eight directed against the Jews remain controversial for their impact on the development of Christian antisemitism.
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