THE EASTERN CHRISTIANITY PORTAL
Showcased Eastern Christian content
refers collectively to the Christian
traditions and churches which developed in the Balkans
, Eastern Europe
, Asia Minor
, the Middle East
, Northeastern Africa
and southern India
over several centuries of religious antiquity. Eastern Christians have a shared tradition, but they became divided (SEE: SCHISM)
during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about christology
and fundamental theology. In general terms, one can identify four branches or families of Eastern Christianity, each of which has distinct theology
. They are: the Assyrian Church of the East
, the Eastern Orthodox Churches
, the Oriental Orthodox Churches
, and the Eastern Catholic Churches
- the latter being in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church
All of the Eastern branches, as well as the Western churches, share a common Christian tradition and most of the same Christian Biblical canon. The Eastern branches also share traditional practices in common which are not shared by the Western churches. The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity have as much, if not more, to do with culture, language, and politics as theology. The Assyrian Church of the East became estranged from the church of the Roman Empire in the years following the Council of Ephesus (431), Oriental Orthodoxy separated after the Council of Chalcedon (451), and the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church is usually dated to 1054. This event is referred to as the Great Schism.
The First Council of Nicaea
, held in Nicaea
), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I
in 325, was the first Ecumenical council
of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine
, called the Nicene Creed
. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical
) councils of Bishops' (Synods
) to create statements of belief and canons
of doctrinal orthodoxy
— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom
. The Council of Nicaea was historically significant because it was the first effort to attain consensus
in the church through an assembly
representing all of Christendom
. "It was the first occasion for the development of technical Christology
." Further, "Constantine in convoking and presiding over the council signaled a measure of imperial control over the church." Further, a precedent was set for subsequent general councils to create creeds
. The long-term effects of the Council of Nicaea were significant. For the first time, representatives of many of the bishops of the Church convened to agree on a doctrinal statement. Also for the first time, the Emperor played a role, by calling together the bishops under his authority, and using the power of the state to give the Council's orders effect.
Saint John Chrysostom
(c. 347–407, Greek
: Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος
, was an important Early Church Father
. He is known for his eloquence in preaching
and public speaking
, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
, and his ascetic
sensibilities. After his death (or, according to some sources, during his life) he was given the Greek
, meaning "golden mouthed", rendered in English as Chrysostom.
The Eastern Orthodox Church honors him as a saint (feast days: November 13 and January 27) and count him among the Three Holy Hierarchs (feast day, January 30), together with Saints Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzus. Churches of the Western tradition, including some Anglican provinces and parts of the Lutheran Church, commemorate him on September 13. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria recognizes John Chrysostom as a saint (feast days: 16 Thout and 17 Hathor).
Chrysostom is known in Christianity chiefly as a preacher, theologian and liturgist, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among his sermons, eight directed against the Jews remain controversial for their impact on the development of Christian antisemitism.
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