It was founded in 1095 as a monastery of the Augustinian Canons and changed to a Benedictine abbey in 1106.
The present abbey church was built between 1747 and 1792 to plans by Balthasar Neumann. On the 50-DM banknote that was current between 1998 and 2002, the abbey appeared on the reverse (the obverse showed Balthasar Neumann). The abbey was dissolved during the secularisation of 1803 and transferred to theThurn und Taxis until 1806 due to the Napoleoic invasion.
The monks run a conference centre and guesthouse, and offer courses and spiritual training. In 2004, the monastery set up the Neresheim Abbey Boys' Choir, which provides a free musical education and voice training. The choir sings regularly at services in the abbey church at Neresheim and also makes appearances outside the monastery.