Religion Wiki
Im>Jim Ellis
m
 
(Created page with '<center><div style="color:#FFF; background-color:#333; border: 1px solid #666; padding:5px;">''' Main Portal - Religion Portals - Projects - [[Religion Wiki s...')
Line 1: Line 1:
  +
<center><div style="color:#FFF; background-color:#333; border: 1px solid #666; padding:5px;">'''[[Portal | Main Portal]] - [[Religion Portals]] - [[Projects]] - [[Religion Wiki staff]] - [http://religion.6forum.info// WikiForum] - [http://frisoandrozalin.mygb.nl// guestbook] - [[credits|credits ]]'''</div></center>
'''Monophysitism''' (from the Greek '''monos''' meaning 'one' and '''physis''' meaning 'nature') is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are two major doctrines that can undisputedly be called '''monophysite''':
 
  +
<div style="color:#FFF; background-color:#333; border: 1px solid #666; padding:5px;">
  +
{{Eastern Christianity2}}
  +
'''Monophysitism''' (from the [[Greece|Greek]] '''monos''' meaning 'one, alone' and '''physis''' meaning 'nature'), or Monophysiticism, is the [[christology|Christological]] position that Christ has only one nature (human-that-evolved-into-divine), as opposed to the [[Chalcedonian]] position which holds that Christ ''maintains'' two natures, one divine and one human. Monophysitism and its antithesis, [[Nestorianism]], were both hotly disputed and divisive competing tenets in the maturing Christian traditions during the first half of the fifth century; during the tumultuous last decades of the Western Empire, and marked by the political shift in all things to a center of gravity then located in the [[Eastern Roman empire]], and particularly in [[Syria]], the [[Levant]], and [[Anatolia]], where Monophysitism was popular among the people.
   
  +
There are two major doctrines that can indisputably be called '''Monophysite''' ({{IPAEng|məˈnɒfəs<s>ɪ</s>t}}):
* [[Eutychianism]] holds that the human nature of Christ was essentially obliterated by the Divine, "dissolved like a drop of honey in the sea".
 
* [[Apollinarianism]] holds that Christ had a human body and human "living principle" but that the Divine Logos had taken the place of the ''nous'', or "thinking principle", analogous but not identical to what might be called a [[mind]] in the present day.
 
   
 
* [[Eutyches|Eutychianism]] holds that the human and divine natures of Christ were fused into one new single (mono) nature: His human nature was "dissolved like a drop of honey in the sea".
The radical monophysitism of Eutyches emerged in Egypt as a response to [[Nestorianism]]. It was rejected at the [[Council of Chalcedon]] in 451 and is also rejected by the [[Oriental Orthodox]] Churches.
 
 
* [[Apollinarism]] or [[Apollinarianism]] holds that Christ had a human body and human "living principle" but that the [[Logos|Divine Logos]] had taken the place of the ''[[nous]]'', or "thinking principle", analogous but not identical to what might be called a [[mind]] in the present day.
   
  +
After [[Nestorianism]], taught by [[Nestorius]], [[Archbishop of Constantinople]], was rejected at the [[First Council of Ephesus]], [[Eutyches]], an [[archimandrite]] at [[Constantinople]], emerged with diametrically opposite views. Eutyches' energy and imprudence with which he asserted his opinions brought him the accusation of [[heresy]] in 448, leading to his excommunication. In 449, at the controversial [[Second Council of Ephesus]] Eutyches was reinstated and his chief opponents [[Eusebius of Dorylaeum|Eusebius]], [[Domnus]] and [[Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople|Flavian]], deposed. Monophysitism and Eutyches were again rejected at the [[Council of Chalcedon]] in 451.
Later, [[monothelitism]] was developed as an attempt to bridge the gap between the monophysite and the Chalcedonian position, but it too was rejected by the Chalcedonians, despite at times having the support of the Byzantine Emperors. Some are of the opinion that [[monothelitism]] was at one time held by the Maronites, but they, for the most part, dispute this, stating that the Maronite Community has never been out of communion with the [[Roman Catholic Church]].
 
   
[[Miaphysitism]], the Christology of the [[Oriental Orthodox]] Churches, is sometimes considered a variant of monophysitism, but these Churches are at pains to distinguish their teaching from monophysitism ''per se''.
+
Monophysitism's theological point of view is also rejected by the [[Oriental Orthodoxy|Oriental Orthodox]] Churches, but was widely accepted in Syria and the Levant, leading to many tensions in the early days of the [[Byzantine Empire]].
   
 
Later, [[Monothelitism]] was developed as an attempt to bridge the gap between the Monophysite and the Chalcedonian position, but it too was rejected by the members of the Chalcedonian synod, despite at times having the support of the [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] emperors and once escaping the condemnation of a [[Pope|Pope]] of Rome, [[Pope Honorius I|Honorius I]]. Some are of the opinion that [[Monothelitism]] was at one time held by the [[Maronite|Maronites]], but the Maronite community, for the most part, dispute this, stating that they have never been out of communion with the [[Catholic Church]].
   
  +
[[Miaphysitism]], the [[christology]] of the [[Oriental Orthodox]] churches, is sometimes erroneously considered as a variant of Monophysitism, but these churches view their theology as distinct from Monophysitism and [[anathema|anathematize]] Eutyches.
==References==
 
* [http://www.britishorthodox.org/2church.php Agreed Statements between representatives of the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox Churches]
 
   
==See also==
 
* [[Eutychianism]]
 
   
  +
[[Category:Heresies]]
 
  +
  +
  +
[[Category:Religion in the Byzantine Empire]]
 
[[Category:Christology]]
  +
[[Category:Oriental Orthodoxy]]
  +
[[Category:Schisms in Christianity]]

Revision as of 12:54, 8 May 2009

Part of a series on the
Eastern Christianity
00058 christ pantocrator mosaic hagia sophia 656x800.jpg
History

Byzantine Empire Crusades Ecumenical council Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' East-West Schism

by regions

Asian - Copts Eastern Orthodox - Georgian - Ukrainian

Traditions

Assyrian Church of the East Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Catholic Churches Oriental Orthodoxy Syriac Christianity

Liturgy and Worship

Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion

Theology

Hesychasm - Icon Apophaticism - Filioque clause Miaphysitism - Monophysitism Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria Phronema - Philokalia Praxis - Theotokos Hypostasis - Ousia Essence - Energies distinction Metousiosis





Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one, alone' and physis meaning 'nature'), or Monophysiticism, is the Christological position that Christ has only one nature (human-that-evolved-into-divine), as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ maintains two natures, one divine and one human. Monophysitism and its antithesis, Nestorianism, were both hotly disputed and divisive competing tenets in the maturing Christian traditions during the first half of the fifth century; during the tumultuous last decades of the Western Empire, and marked by the political shift in all things to a center of gravity then located in the Eastern Roman empire, and particularly in Syria, the Levant, and Anatolia, where Monophysitism was popular among the people.

There are two major doctrines that can indisputably be called Monophysite (English pronunciation: /məˈnɒfəsɪt/):

  • Eutychianism holds that the human and divine natures of Christ were fused into one new single (mono) nature: His human nature was "dissolved like a drop of honey in the sea".
  • Apollinarism or Apollinarianism holds that Christ had a human body and human "living principle" but that the Divine Logos had taken the place of the nous, or "thinking principle", analogous but not identical to what might be called a mind in the present day.

After Nestorianism, taught by Nestorius, Archbishop of Constantinople, was rejected at the First Council of Ephesus, Eutyches, an archimandrite at Constantinople, emerged with diametrically opposite views. Eutyches' energy and imprudence with which he asserted his opinions brought him the accusation of heresy in 448, leading to his excommunication. In 449, at the controversial Second Council of Ephesus Eutyches was reinstated and his chief opponents Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, deposed. Monophysitism and Eutyches were again rejected at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Monophysitism's theological point of view is also rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, but was widely accepted in Syria and the Levant, leading to many tensions in the early days of the Byzantine Empire.

Later, Monothelitism was developed as an attempt to bridge the gap between the Monophysite and the Chalcedonian position, but it too was rejected by the members of the Chalcedonian synod, despite at times having the support of the Byzantine emperors and once escaping the condemnation of a Pope of Rome, Honorius I. Some are of the opinion that Monothelitism was at one time held by the Maronites, but the Maronite community, for the most part, dispute this, stating that they have never been out of communion with the Catholic Church.

Miaphysitism, the christology of the Oriental Orthodox churches, is sometimes erroneously considered as a variant of Monophysitism, but these churches view their theology as distinct from Monophysitism and anathematize Eutyches.