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The Maitrayaniya (Maitrāyaṇīya) or Maitri Upanishad belongs to the Maitri or Maitrayaniya branch of the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda, though some texts assign it to the Sāmaveda. It figures as number 24 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads under the name of the Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad, which is included there as a Sāmānya Upanishad, associated with the Samaveda. The Dīpikā, a notable commentary on this text was written by Rāmatirtha.
The presently available recension of the text consists seven Prapāṭhakas (lessons), the last two are known as khila (appendices). But originally it consisted the first four Prapāṭhakas only. The text begins as a dialogue between the king Bṛhadratha and the sage Śākāyana which continues till vi.30. Through this dialogue, the sage Śākāyana teaches the king the philosophy of the Brahman as it was taught by the sage Maitri. As a part of his teaching, he narrates an ancient dialogue between a group of sages known as the Vālakhilyas and Prajāpati Kratu.
- Cowell, E.B. (re-issue 1935). (tr.) The Maitri or Maitrāṇīya Upanishad, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society of Bengal