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Lutheranism is a Christian tradition committed to the main theological insights of Martin Luther. It is numerically the third largest single Christian movement, with an estimated 82.6 million people belonging to the various congregations, bodies, and churches which call themselves Lutheran.
Luther's insights are generally held to have been a major foundation of the Protestant movement. The relationship between Lutheranism and the Protestant tradition is, however, ambiguous: some Lutherans consider Lutheranism to be outside the Protestant tradition, while most see it as part of this tradition.
As the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada states it: "We derive our teachings from the Holy Scriptures and confess the three ecumenical creeds of the Christian church. We hold to orthodox catholic theology as enunciated in the ecumenical councils of the first five centuries of Christianity."
History of Lutheranism
Lutheranism as a movement traces its origin to the work of Martin Luther, a German priest and religious scholar who sought to reform the practices of the Roman Catholic Church in the early 16th century. The symbolic beginning of the Reformation occurred on October 31, 1517, which Lutherans and other Protestants regard as Reformation Day, when Doctor Luther posted an open invitation to debate his 95 theses concerning the teaching and practice of indulgences within the Church.
Between 1517 and 1520, Luther preached and published his criticisms of the Catholic Church in books and pamphlets. His ideas were supported by many other Christian theologians, and they also had a certain populist appeal. As a result, Luther gained many supporters and followers from all levels of society, from peasants who considered him a folk hero, to knights who swore to protect him, to rulers of German lands who wanted more independence from papal interference in their domestic policies. Luther also gained some powerful enemies, including the Pope in Rome and the youthful Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Concerned about the "problem" of Luther, the Pope and Roman officials decided to send representatives to Luther to discuss his concerns and to persuade him to retract his challenges to papal authority. The effort was largely unsuccessful. Luther continued to discover new areas in need of reform. Finally, the papal bull called the Exsurge Domine was issued in 1520, calling on Luther to condemn and abandon his ideas. Luther replied by burning the bull and volumes of canon law in a bonfire at Wittenberg. Finally, a new bull excommunicating Luther and those who agreed with him was issued.
Charles V wanted to outlaw the now excommunicated Luther and his followers, but he was warned by advisors that doing so outright would cause a revolt, since Luther had become so popular. More importantly, the ruler of Luther's land, Elector Frederick the Wise, refused to allow any of his subjects to be condemned without trial. So instead, Luther was to be summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms. Luther went to Worms, but when called upon by imperial and papal officials to retract his ideas, Luther replied: "I cannot submit my faith either to the Pope or to the Councils, because it is clear as day they have frequently erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore, I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture and plain reason ... I cannot and will not retract ..." --Martin Luther, April 16, 1521
Luther had been granted a Safe Conduct to travel to and from his trial, but remembering how a similar promise had been violated in the case of Jan Hus, Luther's supporters prevailed upon him to escape from Worms in the dark of night, before he too could be seized and executed. Luther remained in hiding for some time, all the while continuing to write and develop his ideas. Shortly after Luther escaped, Charles V issued the Edict of Worms, which outlawed Luther and his followers, declared Luther and his followers heretics, and banned Luther's writings and teachings.
What had started as a strictly theological and academic debate had now turned into something of a social and political conflict as well, pitting Luther, his German allies and Northern European supporters against Charles V, France, the Italian Pope, their territories and other allies. The conflict would erupt into a religious war after Luther's death, fueled by the political climate of the Holy Roman Empire and strong personalities on both sides.
In 1526, at the First Diet of Speyer, it was decided that, until a General Council could meet and settle the theological issues raised by Martin Luther, the Edict of Worms would not be enforced and each Prince could decide if Lutheran teachings and worship would be allowed in his territories. In 1529, at the Second Diet of Speyer, the decision the previous Diet of Speyer was reversed — despite the strong protests of the Lutheran princes, free cities and some Zwinglian territories. These states quickly became known as Protestants. At first, this term Protestant was used politically for the states that resisted the Edict of Worms. Over time, however, this term came to be used for the religious movements that opposed the Roman Catholic tradition in the sixteenth century.
Lutheranism would become known as a separate movement after the 1530 Diet of Augsburg, which was convened by Charles V to try to stop the growing Protestant movement. At the Diet, Philipp Melanchthon presented a written summary of Lutheran beliefs called the Augsburg Confession. Several of the German princes (and later, kings and princes of other countries) signed the document to define "Lutheran" territories. These princes would ally to create the Schmalkaldic League in 1531, which lead to the Schmalkald War that pitted the Lutheran princes of the Schmalkaldic League against the Catholic forces of Charles V.
After the conclusion of the Schmalkald War, Charles V attempted to impose Catholic religious doctrine on the territories that he had defeated. However, the Lutheran movement was far from defeated. In 1577, the next generation of Lutheran theologians gathered the work of the previous generation to define the doctrine of the persisting Lutheran church. This document is known as the Formula of Concord. In 1580, it was published with the Augsburg Confession, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the Large and Small Catechisms of Martin Luther, the Schmalcald Articles and the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope. Together they were distributed in a volume titled The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. This book is still used today, and is referred to as the Book of Concord.
Results of the Lutheran Reformation
Luther and his followers began a large exodus from the Roman Catholic Church known as the Protestant Reformation. In the years and decades following Luther's posting of the 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg church, large numbers of Europeans left the Roman Church, including the majority of German speakers (the only German speaking areas where the population remained mostly in the Catholic church were those under the domain or influence of Catholic Austria and Bavaria or the electoral archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier). Because Luther sparked this mass movement, he is known as the father of the Protestant Reformation, and the father of Protestantism in general.
Today, approximately 1 out every 4 Christians in the world is a Protestant, and 1 out of every 5 Protestants in the world is a Lutheran. Thus, approximately 1 out of every 20 Christians in the world is a Lutheran.
The Holy Scripture and the Lutheran Confessions
The formal principle of Lutheranism and one of the signature teachings of the Lutheran Reformation is the teaching named Sola scriptura -- "Scripture alone." Lutherans believe that the Bible is divinely inspired and is the final authority for all matters of faith and doctrine. Lutherans also hold that the Holy Scripture is explained and interpreted by -- a series of Confessions of faith composed by Lutherans in the 16th Century. Traditionally, Lutheran pastors, congregations and church bodies agree to teach in harmony with the because it teaches and faithfully explains the Word of God. For this reason, Lutherans who follow the closely, especially conservative Lutherans, often refer to themselves as Confessional Lutherans. Other Lutherans, who agree with the main teachings of the Lutheran Confessions, but may take exception to some of its doctrine, subscribe to the in so far as they are in harmony with Holy Scripture.
A few Lutheran church bodies also teach Biblical inerrancy. The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod has long been one such body, but has been increasingly nonuniform in many such teachings in the midst of political turmoil since the final decades of the 20th century. Others adopt the viewpoint that the Bible contains God's Word, but is essentially a human document, subject to error in non-spiritual matters. Those who hold to the former reject modern liberal scholarship, while those that hold to the latter embrace it.
The material principle of Lutheranism is the Lutheran doctrine of Justification; that is, salvation by God's grace alone (Sola Gratia), through faith alone (Sola Fide) for the sake of Christ's merit alone (Solus Christus). Lutherans believe God made the world, humanity included, perfect, holy and sinless. However, Adam and Eve chose to disobey God, trusting in their own strength, knowledge and wisdom. Because of this Original Sin -- the sin from which all other sins come -- all descendents of Adam and Eve (thus, all humans) are born in sin and are sinners. For Lutherans, original sin could be characterized as the "chief sin, a root and fountainhead of all actual sins" (Formula of Concord).
Lutherans teach that sinners cannot do anything (i.e. "good works") to satisfy God's justice. Every human thought and deed is colored by sin and sinful motives. God has intervened in this world because He loves sinners and does not want them to be eternally damned and, by His grace alone -- His free gift of mercy -- a person is forgiven, adopted as a child of God, and given eternal salvation.
For this reason, Lutherans teach that salvation is possible only because of the eternal sacrifice made manifest in the birth, perfect life of obedience, sufferings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the person of Jesus Christ, Lutherans believe God and Man meet. Because He is God, He is sinless and so a worthy sacrifice, without spot or blemish. Because He is a man, He could die. In His death, death is destroyed (in an ultimate sense), our debt paid, and our sins forgiven.
Lutherans believe that individuals receive this gift of salvation by faith alone -- a full and complete trust in God's promises to forgive and to save. Even faith itself is seen as a gift of God, created in the hearts of Christians by the work of the Holy Spirit when they hear God's Word proclaimed, and when they are baptized.
Lutherans believe that all who trust in Jesus alone can be sure of their salvation, for it is in Christ's work and his promises in which their surety lies. They teach that, at death, Christians are immediately taken into the presence of God in Heaven, where they await the resurrection of the body at the second coming of Christ.
Although Lutherans believe good works do not satisfy God's justice, this is not to say that good works play no role in the Christian life. Good works always and in every instance spring spontaneously from true faith, and have their true origin in God, not in the fallen human heart or in human striving; their complete absence would demonstrate that faith, too, is absent.
A substantial milestone was reached in ecumenical relations in 1999, when the Lutheran World Federation and the Roman Catholic Church were able to issue a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, essentially adopting the Old-Catholic position of Justification by Grace through Faith working by Love:
- "Together we confess: By grace alone, in faith in Christ's saving work and not because of any merit on our part, we are accepted by God and receive the Holy Spirit, who renews our hearts while equipping and calling us to good works."
With the whole Christian community, Lutherans believe that there is one God, existing in three persons. (see Trinity)
Lutherans, historically taught and confessed:
- The distinction between Law and Gospel
- Single Predestination: God chose to save His children before the world was created, but does not predestine the lost to be damned. Unlike Calvin, who explained how the reprobate come to be damned (double predestination), Luther said it was a mystery -- something which humanity cannot, and probably should not, try to comprehend.
- Infant Baptism
- Baptismal Regeneration
- The Real Presence of Christ's Body and Blood "in, with and under the forms" of bread and wine in the Lord's Supper.
At the close of the 20th Century, especially in the US, many Lutherans are confusing and blending all of the aforementioned doctrines with those of many other creeds. The distinctions are muddled as the historical Sola Scriptura of the Lutheran heritage is being abandoned. Influences from the megachurches of American evangelicalism (e.g. Hybels' "Becoming a Contagious Christian" from Willow Creek and Warren's "Purpose Driven Life" from Saddleback Church) have displaced Lutheran theology in some Lutheran congregations.
For an overview of Lutheran theology, see:
ELCA Perspective: Braaten, Carl E., Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.
LCMS Historical Perspective: Pieper, Franz. 3 Volumes. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1950-1957.
Lutheran religious practices
Lutherans generally place great emphasis on a liturgical approach to worship services. Music forms a large part of a traditional Lutheran service. Lutheran hymns are sometimes known as chorales, and Luther himself composed hymns and hymn tunes, the most famous of which is "A Mighty Fortress is Our God" ("Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott"). Lutheran hymnody is reputed for its doctrinal, didactic and musical riches. Many Lutheran churches are active musically with choirs, hand-bell choirs, children's choirs and sometimes carillon societies (to ring bells in a bell tower). Johann Sebastian Bach, a devout Lutheran, composed music for the Lutheran church.
- "...we do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. Among us the Mass is celebrated every Lord's Day and on other festivals, when the Sacrament is made available to those who wish to partake of it, after they have been examined and absolved. We also keep traditional liturgical forms, such as the order of readings, prayers, vestments, and other similar things." (Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV.1)
Many Lutheran churches since the 1990s also hold "contemporary" worship services for the purpose of evangelical outreach. Some of these include folk masses, jazz masses, and variations on the techno-cosmic mass. However, many such contemporary worship services are a hotly debated offshoot of what is sometimes known as the Church Growth Movement. In these cases, marketing approaches are adopted to cater to the unchurched by addressing perceived needs rather than emphasizing those historically taught and confessed in the Scriptures. Pastors in such parishes are criticized as focusing less on teaching and preaching and more on administration. Lay people and pastors whose convictions are slow to adopt such practices have complained of feeling shunned and dismissed. In both cases, the rich hymnody which is characteristic of the Lutheran heritage is usually foregone in such services in favor of contemporary "praise" music.
Catechism, especially children's, is considered fundamental in most Lutheran churches. Almost all maintain Sunday Schools, and many host or maintain private nursery-schools, primary schools, regional high schools and universities. Some Lutheran pastors and staff are repeatedly reminded that most evangelism occurs within the church, with children.
Lifelong catechesis, since Martin Luther's day, was intended for all ages so that the abuses of the Church of that day would not reoccur. Reference: prefaces to Luther's Large and Small Catechisms. With the emphasis on proper lifelong catechesis, the Lutheran Church has a heritage rich in theology and doctrine.
Pastors usually teach in the common language of the parish. In the U.S., some congregations and synods traditionally taught in German or Norwegian, but this custom has been in significant decline since the early/middle 20th century.
Pastors almost always have substantial theological educations, including Greek and Hebrew so that they can refer directly to the canonical Christian scriptures in the original language. Lutheran pastors may marry and have families.
Lutheran Churches in the United States use a number of hymnals. The most widely uses are: Christian Worship (WELS), The Lutheran Book of Worship (ELCA and ELCIC), The Lutheran Hymnal (LCMS, WELS & CLC)and Lutheran Worship (LCMS). The Lutheran Church -- Missouri Synod recently approved a new hymnal, Lutheran Service Book, which will be available in the fall of 2006. The Evangelical Lutheran Church has also approved a new hymnal, Evangelical Lutheran Worship, which will be available in October 2006.
Lutherans believe in ecumenism, the idea that there is a single Christian church, and a single Christian faith. They do not believe any one church to be singularly true in its teachings. This belief is ingrained in the Lutheran confessions, and reflects the history of Lutheranism as a reform movement rather than a separatist movement.
For that reason, a number of modern Lutheran denominations, now largely separated from state control, are reaching out to other Lutheran denominations as well as other Christian denominations. However, more conservative varieties of Lutheran strive to maintain historical distinctiveness, emphasizing doctrinal purity over ecumenical outreach.
The largest organizations of Lutheran churches around the world are the Lutheran World Federation and the International Lutheran Council, which include the great majority of Lutheran denominations around the globe.
Lutheranism in North America
In the U.S., congregations are grouped into over 20 different denominations.
By far the largest is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).
The next largest American synod is the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS), a conservative synod. Even more conservative than the LCMS are two synods that are in communion with each other: the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) and the Evangelical Lutheran Synod(ELS). All these denominations provide seminaries, pastoral care, and Sunday School and liturgical materials. Local congregations contribute funds to support them and receive services and materials. Denominations help to start new congregations affiliated with them. The LCMS, the WELS, and the ELS consider the ELCA to be very liberal.
In Canada, the two largest Lutheran denominations are the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) and the Lutheran Church - Canada (LCC). The ELCIC was formed in 1986 when the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Canada (former congregations of the American Lutheran Church) absorbed the Canada Section of the Lutheran Church in America. The ELCIC is in full communion with the Anglican Church of Canada. The LCC was formed in 1988 when Canadian congregations of the LCMS formed their own denomination.
These largest Lutheran denominations in the United States and Canada are members of the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), a worldwide Communion of historic Lutheran churches. The LCMS and the LCC are affiliated with the International Lutheran Council (ILC). The WELS and ELS are affiliated with the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference(CELC).
Many smaller Lutheran churches exist in North America as micro-synods and independent congregations such as the Church of the Lutheran Confession (CLC), Church of the Lutheran Brethren, American Association of Lutheran Churches, Apostolic Lutheran Church of America, the Association of Free Lutheran Congregations and Augsburg Lutheran Churches.
The ELCA is divided into convocations of a bishop, the bishop's presbyterium, and the laity, consisting of 64 geographical synods and one non-geographical synod (the Slovak Zion Synod). The ELCA has established relationships of full communion with The Episcopal Church, and the Moravian Church, as well as with the United Church of Christ, the Presbyterian Church (USA) and the Reformed Church in America and an interim agreement with the United Methodist Church. The ELCA ordains both men and women to the pastoral office. It does not ordain clergy in active same-sex relationships nor bless same-sex marriages, but such persons resigned to celibacy can be ordained; however, these rules are currently under study.
The LCMS is divided into 35 districts, including 2 non-geographical districts. It permits only qualified men to serve as pastors. It encourages women to be active in the church and has affirmed women's suffrage within congregations since 1969. In 2004, resolution 3-08A in its synodical convention permitted women to "serve in humanly established offices" such as congregation president, elder (πρεσβυτερους), reader, or usher. The LCMS does not permit active homosexuals to serve in the ministry, and it has affirmed an exclusively heterosexual definition of marriage. Officially, the LCMS only communes members of its own Synodical congregations or those who are in fellowship with the LCMS. There are unfortunate internal struggles within the LCMS, but this in turn is prompting a new reformation within that body. The vast majority of LCMS congregations are doctinally very conservative, so the "political" divisions can't be accurately classified as conservative and liberal. They might be better defined as "traditionalists" (who believe in a traditional approach to worship and to sharing conservative doctrine) and "progressives" (who embrace cultural relevance in worship style and/or mission outreach with conservative doctrine). Notable influences in the recent internal transformations of the LCMS include the official LCMS Ablaze! movement, Jesus First, Day Star, and Voices/Vision, Renewal in Missouri, and the Pastoral Leadership Institute (PLI).
The WELS is also divided into districts. As with the LCMS, it permits only qualified men to serve as pastors and adopts similar positions on homosexuality and marriage. WELS does not support women's suffrage in the church. WELS teaches the "Unit Concept" of fellowship. Strict adherence to this requires members to refrain from all worship, including prayer, with those not in fellowship with WELS.
One historic difference between the ELCA and the LCMS that can be seen today are the ethnic origins of both synods. The synods that merged into the ELCA came from a mix of German, Scandinavian, and Baltic congregations, while the LCMS has a primarily German background.
In Canada, the ELCIC is divided into five synods and is in full communion with the Anglican Church of Canada. The LCC, based out of Winnipeg, Manitoba, is divided into three districts and maintains strong ties to the LCMS.
There are at least 20 smaller Lutheran Denominations in the U.S., with many of them being cultural or doctrinal offshoots of the main three.
U.S. denominations differ on doctrine and practice. Doctrinally, the differences are primarily based on the degree of authority denominations place on the written text of Scripture. The ELCA subscribes to the "Historical-Critical Method" of Scripture interpretation, which attempts to interpret the text while taking account of the historical, cultural, and scientific limitations or biases imposed by the original writers. Many members of the ELCA believe that such criticism represents the best efforts of modern scholarship.
The LCMS and WELS still largely follow the traditional "historical-grammatical" method of interpreting the Scripture text, which seeks to understand the text as it is written within the context of history, culture, and language. Many members of these denominations believe this approach best reflects the original meaning of the text.
As a result of doctrinal differences, cooperation between different denominations varies: there is collaboration on some forms of outreach (for example, Lutheran World Relief); in worship practice, however, the conservative denominations typically practice closed communion, limiting celebration of the Eucharist (Lord's Supper) to those within their own denominations out of concern for doctrinal differences.
- Concordia Publishing House (LCMS)
- Augsburg Fortress and Fortress Press (ELCA)
- Northwestern Publishing House (WELS)
- Church of the Lutheran Confession Bookhouse (CLC)
- Openbook Publishers (Lutheran Church of Australia)
- Ambassador Publications (AFLC)
- Repristination Press
- Emmanuel Press
- American Lutheran Publicity Bureau
Modern Lutheranism in Europe
Evangelical Lutheranism is the established church in most of the Nordic countries: Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. In these countries, the churches are supported directly by taxes. The church tax, an income tax of about 1–2%, is collected only from the members of the church, but the church also gets its share from other taxes such as the municipal corporation tax. Priests are educated at the Faculties of Theology of the state universities. With the extension of the European Union, the status of state churches is largely revised; they remain a State Church but win greater autonomy. In Sweden, Lutheranism was the state religion up until 2000. The church is no longer supported by taxes, but the fees are collected along with taxes.
In the midst of the Church of Sweden's Constitution of 2000, different traditional and biblical movements continued dissension from the political bondage to the State. Notable personalities in the conflict include the first bishop of the Missions province, the Right Reverend Arne Olsson; and the Bishop of the Evangelical Church of Kenya, the Right Reverend Walter Obare.
Lutheranism is also prominent in Estonia and Latvia. Members of the predominant churches in Germany, whether Lutheran, Reformed, or Catholic are also required by the state to pay a church tax in addition to their normal income tax. Certain parts of Germany are traditionally Lutheran (generally towards the north and east) while others are historically Catholic (especially Bavaria and areas along the Rhine). Modern mobility and a decrease in religiosity have, however, been instrumental in shifting the demographic situation, as did the movements of German refugees from areas lost to Poland and Russia as a result of World War II.
There are smaller notable confessionally Lutheran Denominations in Europe that are neither state religions nor supported by fees associated with taxes. They are supported by parishioners' tithings though the practice has been mostly lost in recent European generations. Examples include the Evangelical Lutheran Church of England (ELCE) and the Église Évangélique Luthérienne Synode de France et de Belgique (ELC-SFB), both of which are International Lutheran Council (ILC) members.
Notably, the larger, state-affiliated European churches have relatively low attending memberships at the offices; due to the history of those European churches, most parts of them knew persecution during the 17th and 18th centuries. The church attendance on Sunday is not decisive and house offices are still perennial, particularly in southern Europe. Most people feel it is more important to attend to the lot of conference and training and Biblical studies. So, in northern Europe many attend religious services only for baptisms, confirmations, weddings, funerals, and possibly at Christmas and Easter. Confirmation is treated seriously and is usually delayed until the end of the high school courses. The Lutheran confirmation training usually constitutes the largest exposure of Northern Europeans to Christian doctrines.
In 1993, the Lutheran Churches of the Nordic and Baltic states entered into a full communion agreement (the Porvoo Common Statement) with the Anglican Churches of Europe and the British Isles, to form the Porvoo Communion. The North American Lutheran and Anglican churches in full communion with each other are also in full communion with the Porvoo Communion. As Anglicans are in full communion with the Old-Catholic Churches of the Utrecht Union, that Union began negotiations in 2005 with the Church of Sweden on entering into a full communion agreement with the Lutherans.
In other European areas such as Spain, the presence of Lutherans was extinguished during the 16th century Inquisition. In Spain, new Lutheran missions activities started as recently as 2000 by missionaries from the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Argentina (IELA).
Recently, the Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands merged with two Reformed churches (the Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk and the Gereformeerde Kerken), creating the 2,000,000 strong Protestant Church of the Netherlands. The 'PKN' claims to be both Reformed and Lutheran and is a member of both the WARC and the Lutheran World Federation. The Lutheran congregations in the Netherlands have remained largely autonomous.
Except in Northern Europe (see above), very few seminaries are state-supported. Due to large agreements like the Concorde de Leuenberg (1962), involving many churches raising from the Reformation the training for students in theology embraces a wide range of theologies including modern and contemporary movements in biblical criticism and theology.
Many major seaports contain the outposts of the respective Nordic Lutheran churches (e.g. Norwegian and Finnish) to provide aid, social opportunities, and pastoral care for visiting seamen — in their own language.
Lutherans in Australia
At present (2005) around 9% of the Australian population call themselves Lutherans. Most Lutherans in Australia are members of congregations that form the synod Lutheran Church of Australia (LCA). At present the Lutheran Church of Australia has elected only to be an associate member of the two large worldwide Lutheran fellowships, LWF and ILC.
More conservative groups of Australian Lutherans exist as the Evangelical Lutheran Congregations of the Reformation (ELCR) and the Australian Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Most Lutherans in Australia live in rural areas, although this is changing. A popular myth shared amongst Lutherans in Australia is that their church fathers came to Australia to escape religious prosecution in Prussia in 1839. Early history of the church shows much diversity, which resulted in many splits and the formation of many small Lutheran synods throughout Australia. Lutherans are most prominate in South Australia, Queensland and Victoria. After many years of discussion in 1966 the two main synods and therefore most Lutheran congregations joined together to form the Lutheran Church of Australia.
The three largest international Lutheran bodies are the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), of which the ELCA is a member; the International Lutheran Council (ILC), of which the LCMS and the LCC are members; and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (CELC), of which the WELS and ELS are members. The Lutheran World Federation supports the activities of Lutheran World Relief, a relief and development agency active in more than 50 countries.
These three communions together consist of about 200 church bodies in about 80 nations.
Examples of the LWF include Lutheran Church of Taiwan (中華民國台灣基督教信義會) and the Taiwan Lutheran Church (基督教台灣信義會).
Examples of the ILC include China Evangelical Lutheran Church (中華福音道路德會) and The Lutheran Church—Hong Kong Synod (香港路德會).
Many smaller Lutheran churches exist throughout the world, non-affiliated with the large LWF, ILC and CELC such as those affiliated with the CLC, especially active in East Africa and India; and those affiliated with the Church of the Lutheran Brethren, which are especially active elsewhere in Asia.
- Book of Concord
- List of Lutherans
- Lutheran World Federation
- International Lutheran Council
- Porvoo Communion
- Confessional Lutheran
- Evangelical catholic
- Lutheran Catholic Communion
This article was forked from Wikipedia on March 24, 2006.
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