|Kitáb-i-Aqdas · Kitáb-i-Íqán |
Index of Bahá'í Articles|
The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each, (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years). Years in the calendar begin at the vernal equinox, and are counted with the date notation of BE (Bahá'í Era), with March 21, 1844 CE being the first day of the first year. The period from March 21, 2009 to March 20, 2010 is the year 166 BE. At present, the Bahá'í calendar is synchronized to the Gregorian calendar, meaning that the extra day of a leap year occurs simultaneously in both calendars.
The Bahá'í calendar started from the original Badí‘ calendar, created by the Báb. Bahá'u'lláh confirmed and adopted this calendar and made Naw-Rúz the first day of the year, and also clarified the intercalary days.
Although the vernal equinox can occur on March 20, 21 or 22, Shoghi Effendi declared that, for the time being, the Badí‘ calendar is 'locked' to the Gregorian calendar with the new year always starting at sunset on 20 March. Without this, the calendar could vary by a day or two when compared to the Gregorian calendar. The implementation of the variable calendar with respect to the beginning of Naw-Rúz will require the Universal House of Justice selecting a single location for the fixing of the date of the equinox. This 'locked' calendar is the one described in this article.
Years in the Bahá'í calendar are counted from Thursday, 21 March 1844, the beginning of the Bahá'í Era or Badí‘ Era (abbreviated BE or B.E.). Year 1 BE thus began at sundown 20 March 1844. Using the Bahá'í names for the weekday and month, day one of the Bahá'í Era was Istijlál (Majesty), 1 Bahá (Splendour) 1 BE. As detailed below, the names of the Bahá'í months and days reflect attributes of God.
For several early years after Tom Morey founded what would become Morey Watersports, the boogie boards his company produced were stamped with the B.E. year of production. This may have been the first "external" use of B.E. dates, and almost certainly the first on a commercial product.
The Bahá'í calendar is composed of 19 months, each with 19 days. The Nineteen Day Fast is held during the final month of ‘Alá’ (2 March – 20 March), and is preceded by the intercalary days, known as Ayyám-i-Há. There are four intercalary days in a regular year, and five in a leap year. The introduction of intercalation marked an important break from Islam, as under the Islamic calendar the practice of intercalation had been specifically prohibited in the Qur'an. The month of fasting is followed by Naw-Rúz, the new year. Because the calendar is currently synchronized with the Gregorian calendar, the Bahá'í leap years happen on common era leap years. In addition, the intercalary days include 28 February and 1 March, causing precise synchronization of the 19 months with the Gregorian calendar.
|Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Gregorian Dates|
|Bahá||بهاء||Splendour||21 March – 8 April|
|Jalál||جلال||Glory||9 April – 27 April|
|Jamál||جمال||Beauty||28 April – 16 May|
|‘Aẓamat||عظمة||Grandeur||17 May – 4 June|
|Núr||نور||Light||5 June – 23 June|
|Raḥmat||رحمة||Mercy||24 June – 12 July|
|Kalimát||كلمات||Words||13 July – 31 July|
|Kamál||كمال||Perfection||1 August – 19 August|
|Asmá’||اسماء||Names||20 August – 7 September|
|‘Izzat||عزة||Might||8 September – 26 September|
|Mashíyyat||مشية||Will||27 September – 15 October|
|‘Ilm||علم||Knowledge||16 October – 3 November|
|Qudrat||قدرة||Power||4 November – 22 November|
|Qawl||قول||Speech||23 November – 11 December|
|Masá’il||مسائل||Questions||12 December – 30 December|
|Sharaf||شرف||Honour||31 December – 18 January|
|Sulṭán||سلطان||Sovereignty||19 January – 6 February|
|Mulk||ملك||Dominion||7 February – 25 February|
|Ayyám-i-Há||ايام الهاء||The Days of Há||26 February – 1 March|
|‘Alá’||علاء||Loftiness||2 March – 20 March (Month of fasting)|
There are eleven holy days in the Bahá'í calendar on nine of which work is suspended. The Festival of Ridván, a twelve-day festival that commemorates Bahá'u'lláh's announcement of prophethood, is the most holy Bahá'í festival and is referred to as the "Most Great Festival."
On the Islamic lunar calendar, the births of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh fall on consecutive days; the first and second day of Muharram, respectively. The Universal House of Justice has decided to celebrate them on the solar calendar, but has the authority to change the observance to the lunar calendar days, which migrate through the solar calendar by 11 or 12 days each year.
|Name||Gregorian Dates||Work Suspended|
|Naw-Rúz (Bahá'í New Year)||March 21||Yes|
|First day of Riḍván (Arabic: رضوان)||April 21||Yes|
|Ninth day of Riḍván||April 29||Yes|
|Twelfth day of Riḍván||May 2||Yes|
|Declaration of the Báb||May 23||Yes|
|Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh||May 29||Yes|
|Martyrdom of the Báb||July 9||Yes|
|Birth of the Báb||October 20||Yes|
|Birth of Bahá'u'lláh||November 12||Yes|
|Day of the Covenant||November 26||No|
|Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá||November 28||No|
The Bahá'í week starts on Saturday, and ends on Friday. Days begin at sunset on the previous solar day and end at sunset of the present solar day. Like Islam, Friday is also the day of rest in the Bahá'í Faith.
|Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Day of the Week|
Váḥid and Kull-i-Shay’
Also existing in the Bahá'í calendar system is a 19-year cycle called Váḥid and a 361-year (19x19) supercycle called Kull-i-Shay’ (literally, "All Things"). Each of the 19 years in a Vahid has been given a name as shown in the table below. The 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’ started on 21 March 1996, and the 10th Váḥid will begin in 2015. The current Bahá'í year, year 166 BE (21 March 2009 - 20 March 2010), is year Vahháb of the 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’. The 2nd Kull-i-Shay’ will begin in 2205.
The concept of a 19-year cycle has existed in some form since the 4th century BC. The Metonic cycle represents an invented measure that approximately correlates solar and lunar markings of time and which appears in several calendar systems.
- Years in a Váḥid
|No.||Persian Name||Arabic Script||English Translation|
- Curtis, Larry (2004-03-06). "A Day in the Bahá'í Calendar". bcca.org. http://www.bcca.org/bahaivision/docs/today.html. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Taylor, John (2000-09-01). "On Novelty in Ayyám-i-Há and the Badí Calendar". bahai-library.org. http://bahai-library.com/?file=taylor_novelty_badi_calendar. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Universal House of Justice (1992). Notes of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-43.html#gr2. .
- Effendi, Shoghi (1973). Directives from the Guardian. India/Hawaii: Bahá'í publishing trust. pp. 30. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/DG/dg-75.html.
- National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Bahá'í Calendar". bahai.us. http://www.bahai.us/bahai-calendar. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed. ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0877431604. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/je/BNE/.
- Taherzadeh, A. (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853-63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 116-7. ISBN 0853982708. http://www.peyman.info/cl/Baha'i/Others/ROB/V1/p105-152Ch09.html#p109.
- Stephen N. Lambden. The Du'á Sahar or Supplication of Glory-Beauty (al-bahá')
- National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Badi Calendar". bahai.us. http://www.bahai.us/system/files/BahaiCalendarOptimized.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Walbridge, John (2003-10-02). "Ridvan". http://bahai-library.com/?file=walbridge_encyclopedia_ridvan. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Taherzadeh, Adib (1987). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 4: Mazra'ih & Bahji 1877-92. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 334. ISBN 0853982708. http://www.peyman.info/cl/Baha%27i/Others/ROB/V4/p329-350Ch22.html.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1950). The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1950. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. http://bahai-library.com/?file=shoghieffendi_statistics_1844-1950.
- "Letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer". Bahá'í News (162, April 1943): 5. 1939-07-10. In Effendi, Shoghi; Bahá'u'llah, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The Universal House of Justice (1983). Hornby, Helen. ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. New Delhi, India: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 109. ISBN 9788185091464. http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance.html&chapter=2#n372. Retrieved 2009-03-15. "III. Bahá'í: E. Miscellaneous Subjects: 372. Friday is Day of Rest in Bahá'í Calendar."
- Bellenir, Karen (2004). Religious Holidays and Calendars: An Encyclopedic Handbook (3rd ed.). Omnigraphics. p. 154. ISBN 0780806654.
- Bolhuis, Arjen (2006-03-23). "The first Kull-i-Shay' of the Bahá'í Era". http://bahai-library.org/resources/kull-i-shay.html. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1976). Principles of Bahá'í Administration (4th ed. ed.). London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0900125136.
- Esslemont, John (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed. ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877431604. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/je/BNE/.
ar:تقويم بهائي be-x-old:Каляндар Багаі br:Deiziadur Bahá'í cs:Bahá’í kalendář eo:Bahaa kalendaro fa:گاهشماری بهائی io:Bahá'u'lláh-kalendario lt:Bahajų kalendorius hu:Bahá’í naptár arz:تقويم بهائى no:Bahaikalender pt:Calendário bahá'í ru:Календарь бахаи sh:Bahaistički kalendar sv:Bahaikalendern