The Ba Gua (Chinese: 八卦; literally "eight symbols") are eight trigrams related to Ba Xian and used in Daoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken," representing yin or yang, respectively. Due to their tripartite structure, they are often referred to as "trigrams" in English.
The trigrams are related to taiji philosophy, taijiquan and the wu xing, or "five elements". The relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the Primordial (先天八卦), "Earlier Heaven" or "Fu Xi" bagua (伏羲八卦), and the Manifested (後天八卦), "Later Heaven," or "King Wen" bagua. The trigrams have correspondences in astronomy, astrology, geography, geomancy, anatomy, the family, and elsewhere.
|Position||Full Yang||Full Yin||Yang Above||Yin Below||Yang Middle||Yin Middle||Yang Below||Yin Above|
|Ba Xian||Han Xiang-Zi||Lan Cai-He||Cao Guo-Jiu||He Xian-Gu||Li Tie-Guai||Lü Dong-Bin||Zhang Guo-Lao||Zhuang-Li Quan|
|Ba Xian Personality||Philosopher||Emotioner||Emperor||Tao Yin||Pilgrim||Leader||Warrior||Peacer|
|Millennial Instrument||Flute||Basket Flower||Castanet||Lotus Flower||Calabash, Iron Crutch||Sword||Drum||Hand fan|
|Hour||10h30 ~ 13h30||22h30 ~ 1h30||13h30 ~ 16h30||1h30 ~ 4h30||16h30 ~ 19h30||4h30 ~ 7h30||19h30 ~ 22h30||7h30 ~ 10h30|
|Season ( 45 Days )||Mid Summer||Mid Winter||Summer ~ Autumn||Winter ~ Spring||Mid Autumn||Mid Spring||Autumn ~ Winter||Spring ~ Summer|
|Chinese Zodiac Sign||Sheep||Tiger||Cat||Phoenix||Mouse||Snake||Monkey||Dog|
|8 Mai Mantis Links||Du Mai||Ren Mai||Yang Wei Mai||Yin Qiao Mai||Dai Mai||Chong Mai||Yang Qiao Mai||Yin Wei Mai|
|Family||Father||Mother||Old Son||Old Daughter||Middle Son||Middle Daughter||Young Son||Young Daughter|
|Feng Shui Number||9||1||2||8||7||3||6||4|
|Cardinal direction (Arctic~Antarctic)||S ~ Equator Line ~ N||Pole North ~ South Pole||SW~NW||NE~SE||West Sunset||East Sunrise||NW~SW||SE~NE|
Relation to other Principles
The Limitless (無極; wuji) produces the delimited (有極; youji), and this demarcation is equivalent to the Absolute (太極; taiji).
The Taiji produces two forms, named yin and yang (陰陽; yinyang);
These two forms produce four phenomena: named lesser yin (少陰, shaoyin), greater yin (太陰; taiyin, which also refers to the Moon), lesser yang (少陽, shaoyang), and greater yang (太陽; taiyang, which also refers to the Sun).
The four phenomena (四象; sìxiàng) act on the eight trigrams (八卦; bagua).
Eight 'eights' results in sixty-four hexagrams.
Another possible source of bagua is the following, attributed to King Wen of Zhou Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is Qian-gua, and the Earth is Kun-gua. The remaining six gua are their sons and daughters".
The trigrams are related to the five elements of wu xing, used by feng shui practitioners and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those five elements are wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of Metal corresponds with the trigrams of Heaven (Qian) and Lake (Dui).
There are eight possible combinations to render the various trigrams (八卦 bāguà):
|Trigram Figure||possible Binary Value||Name||Translation: Wilhelm||Image in Nature (pp.l-li)||Direction (p. 269)||Family Relationship (p. 274)||Body Part (p. 274)||Attribute (p. 273)||Stage/ State (pp.l-li)||Animal (p. 273)|
|the Creative, Force|| heaven, sky|
|the Joyous, Open|| wind|
|west||third daughter||mouth||pleasure||tranquil (complete devotion)|| 羊|
|the Clinging, Radiance|| fire|
|south||second daughter||eye||light-giving, dependence||clinging, clarity, adaptable|| 雉|
|the Arousing, Shake|| thunder|
|east||first son||foot||inciting movement||initiative|| 龍|
|the Gentle, Ground|| wood|
|southeast||first daughter||thigh||penetrating||gentle entrance|| 雞|
|the Abysmal, Gorge|| water|
|north||second son||ear||dangerous||in-motion|| 豕|
|Keeping Still, Bound|| mountain|
|northeast||third son||hand||resting, stand-still||completion|| 狗|
|the Receptive, Field|| earth|
|southwest||mother||belly||devoted, yielding||receptive|| 牛|
Hexagram lookup table
|01 ䷀||34 ䷡||05 ䷄||26 ䷙||11 ䷊||09 ䷈||14 ䷍||43 ䷪|
|25 ䷘||51 ䷲||03 ䷂||27 ䷚||24 ䷗||42 ䷩||21 ䷔||17 ䷐|
|06 ䷅||40 ䷧||29 ䷜||04 ䷃||07 ䷆||59 ䷺||64 ䷿||47 ䷮|
|33 ䷠||62 ䷽||39 ䷦||52 ䷳||15 ䷎||53 ䷴||56 ䷷||31 ䷞|
|12 ䷋||16 ䷏||08 ䷇||23 ䷖||02 ䷁||20 ䷓||35 ䷢||45 ䷬|
|44 ䷫||32 ䷟||48 ䷯||18 ䷑||46 ䷭||57 ䷸||50 ䷱||28 ䷛|
|13 ䷌||55 ䷶||63 ䷾||22 ䷕||36 ䷣||37 ䷤||30 ䷝||49 ䷰|
|10 ䷉||54 ䷵||60 ䷻||41 ䷨||19 ䷒||61 ䷼||38 ䷥||58 ䷹|
Fu Xi "Earlier Heaven"
|乾 Qián||天 Sky (Heaven)||Summer||Creative||父 Father||南 South||Expansive energy, the sky. For further information, see tiān.|
|巽 Xùn||風 Wood||Summer||Gentle||長女 Eldest Daughter||西南 Southwest||Gentle penetration, flexibility.|
|坎 Kǎn||水 Water||Autumn||Abysmal||中男 Middle Son||西 West||Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.|
|艮 Gèn||山 Mountain||Autumn||Still||少男 Youngest Son||西北 Northwest||Stillness, immovability.|
|坤 Kūn||地 Earth||Winter||Receptive||母 Mother||北 North||Receptive energy, that which yields. For further information, see dì.|
|震 Zhèn||雷 Thunder||Winter||Arousing||長男 Eldest Son||東北 Northeast||Excitation, revolution, division.|
|離 Lí||火 Fire||Spring||Clinging||中女 Middle Daughter||東 East||Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.|
|兌 Duì||澤 Cyclone||Spring||Joyous||少女 Youngest Daughter||東南 Southeast||Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.|
King Wen "Later Heaven"
|離 Li||火 Fire||Summer||Clinging||中女 Middle Daughter||南 South||Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.|
|坤 Kun||地 Earth||Summer||Receptive||母 Mother||西南 Southwest||Receptive energy, that which yields.|
|兌 Dui||澤 Cyclone||Autumn||Joyous||少女 Youngest Daughter||西 West||Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.|
|乾 Qian||天 Heaven||Autumn||Creative||父 Father||西北 Northwest||Expansive energy, the sky.|
|坎 Kan||水 Water||Winter||Abysmal||中男 Middle Son||北 North||Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.|
|艮 Gen||山 Mountain||Winter||Still||少男 Youngest Son||東北 Northeast||Stillness, immovability.|
|震 Zhen||雷 Thunder||Spring||Arousing||長男 Eldest Son||東 East||Excitation, revolution, division.|
|巽 Xun||風 Wood||Spring||Gentle||長女 Eldest Daughter||東南 Southeast||Gentle penetration, flexibility.|
Bagua used in Feng Shui
The Bagua is an essential tool in the majority of Feng Shui schools. The Bagua used in Feng shui can appear in two different versions: the Earlier Heaven Bagua, used for burial sites and the Later Heaven Bagua, used for the residences.
In Xiantian Bagua, also known as Fu Xi Bagua or Earlier Heaven Bagua, the Heaven is in the higher part and the Earth is in the lower part. The trigram Qian (Heaven) is at the top, the trigram Kun (Earth) is at the bottom (in the past, the South was located at the top in Chinese maps). The trigram Li (Fire) is located on the left and opposite to it is the trigram Kan (Water). Zhen (Thunder) and Xun (Wind) form another pair, while being one opposite the other, the first on the bottom left next to Li while the second is next to Qian on the top right of the Bagua. Gen (Mountain) and Dui (Lake) form the last pair, one opposite the other, both in balance and harmony. The adjustment of the trigrams is symmetrical by forming exact contrary pairs. They symbolize the opposite forces of Yin and Yang and represent an ideal state, when everything is in balance.
The sequence of the trigrams in Houtian Bagua, also known as the Bagua of King Wen or Later Heaven Bagua, describes the patterns of the environmental changes. Kan is placed downwards and Li at the top, Zhen in the East and Dui in the West. Contrary to the Earlier Heaven Bagua, this one is a dynamic Bagua where energies and the aspects of each trigram flow towards the following. It is the sequence used by the Luo Pan compass which is used in Feng Shui to analyze the movement of the Qi that affects us.
Bagua of the eight aspirations
Feng shui was made very popular in the Occident thanks to the Bagua of the eight aspirations. Each trigram corresponds to an aspect of life which, in its turn, corresponds to one of the cardinal directions. Applying feng shui using the Bagua of the eight aspirations made it possible to simplify feng shui and to bring it within the reach of everyone. The Masters of traditional feng shui call it Neo Feng Shui, for its simplicity, because it does not take into account the forms of the landscape or the temporal influence or the annual cycles. The Bagua of the eight aspirations is divided into two branches: the first, which uses the compass and cardinal directions, and the second, which uses the Bagua by using the main door. It is clear that, not taking into account the cardinal directions, the second is even more simplified.
A bagua map is a tool used in modern forms of feng shui to map a room or location and see how the different sections correspond to different aspects in one's life. These sections are believed to relate to every area or aspect of life and are divided into such categories as: fame, relationships/marriage, children/creativity, helpful people/travel, career, inner knowledge, family/ancestors/health, and wealth/blessings.
In this system, the map is intended to be used over the land, one's home, office or desk to find areas lacking good chi, and to show where there are negative or missing spaces that may need rectifying or enhancing in life or the environment.
For example, if the bagua grid is placed over the entire house plan and it shows the toilet, bathroom, laundry, or kitchen in the wealth/blessings area it would be considered that the money coming into that particular environment would disappear very fast, as if to be 'going down the drain.'
- ↑ CHEN, Xin (tr. Alex Golstein). The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan, INBI Matrix Pty Ltd, 2007. page 11. (accessed on Scribd.com, December 14, 2009.)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Wilhelm, Richard (1950). The I Ching or Book of Changes. translated by Cary F. Baynes, forward by C. G. Jung, preface to 3rd ed. by Hellmut Wilhelm (1967). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 266, 269. ISBN 069109750X. http://books.google.com/books?id=bbU9AAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA266&pg=PA266.
- ↑ TSUEI, Wei. Roots of Chinese culture and medicine Chinese Culture Books Co., 1989.
- ↑ ZONG, Xiao-Fan and Liscum, Gary. Chinese Medical Palmistry: Your Health in Your Hand, Blue Poppy Press, 1999.
- ↑ Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., (1967): "The I Ching or Book of Changes", With foreword by Carl Jung, Introduction, Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press, (1st ed. 1950)
- Media related to Ba Gua on Wikimedia Commons
- Malaysia Iching Net
- The Spiritual Feng Shui
- Kheper.net on the trigrams
- The oirigin of Bazhai Feng Shui based on the Bagua
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Bagua. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|