Sandro Botticelli - La Carte de l'Enfer

Illustration of the structure of Hell according to Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. By Sandro Botticelli (1480 ou 1495). According to Carl Gustav Jung, hell represents, among every culture, the disturbing aspect of the collective unconscious.

Template:Psychoanalysis Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, coined by Carl Jung. It is proposed to be a part of the unconscious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Jung distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, in that the personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual, while the collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species.

Jung's definitions

For Jung, “My thesis then, is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, which is of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even if we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals. This collective unconscious does not develop individually but is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents.”[1]

Jung linked the collective unconscious to 'what Freud called "archaic remnants" - mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal, innate, and inherited shapes of the human mind'.[2]

Archetypes and collective representations

Jung considered that 'the shadow' and the anima/animus differ from the other archetypes in the fact that their content is more directly related to the individual's personal situation',[3] and less to the collective unconscious: by contrast, 'the collective unconscious is personified as a Wise Old Man'.[4]

Jung also made reference to contents of this category of the unconscious psyche as being similar to Levy-Bruhl's use of collective representations or "représentations collectives," Mythological "motifs," Hubert and Mauss's "categories of the imagination," and Adolf Bastian's "primordial thoughts."

Minimal/maximal interpretations

In a minimalist interpretation of what would then appear as 'Jung's much misunderstood idea of the collective unconscious', his idea was 'simply that certain structures and predispositions of the unconscious are common to all of us...[on] an inherited, species-specific, genetic basis'.[5] Thus 'one could as easily speak of the "collective arm" - meaning the basic pattern of bones and muscles which all human arms share in common'.[6]

Others point out however that 'there does seem to be a basic ambiguity in Jung's various descriptions of the Collective Unconscious. Sometimes he seems to regard the predisposition to experience certain images as understandable in terms of some genetic model'[7] - as with the collective arm. However, Jung was 'also at pains to stress the numinous quality of these experiences, and there can be no doubt that he was attracted to the idea that the archetypes afford evidence of some communion with some divine or world mind', and perhaps 'his popularity as a thinker derives precisely from this'[8] - the maximal interpretation.

Marie-Louise von Franz accepted that 'it is naturally very tempting to identify the hypothesis of the collective unconscious historically and regressively with the ancient idea of an all-extensive world-soul'.[9] New Age writer Healy goes further, claiming that Jung himself 'dared to suggest that the human mind could link to ideas and motivations called the collective unconscious...a body of unconscious energy that lives forever'.[10] This is the idea of monopsychism.

See also


  1. C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (London 1996) p. 43
  2. C. G. Jung, Man and his Symbols (London 1978) p. 57
  3. Walter A. Shelburne, Mythos and Logos in the Thought of Carl Jung (1988) p. 150
  4. C. G. Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis (London 1963) p. 106
  5. Stan Gooch, Total Man (London 1975) p. 433
  6. Gooch, p. 433
  7. D. A G. Cook, "Jung" in Richard L. Gregory, The Oxford Companion to the Mind (Oxford 1987) p. 405
  8. Cook, p. 405
  9. Marie-Louise von Franz, Projection and Re-Collection in Jungian Psychology (1985) p. 85
  10. Sherry Healy, Dare to be Intuitive (2005) p. 10

Further reading

  • Michael Vannoy Adams, The Mythological Unconscious (2001)
  • Gallo, Ernest. "Synchronicity and the Archetypes," Skeptical Inquirer, 18 (4). Summer 1994.
  • Jung, Carl. (1959). Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious.
  • Jung, Carl. The Development of Personality.
  • Jung, Carl. (1970). "Psychic conflicts in a child.", Collected Works of C. G. Jung, 17. Princeton University Press. 235 p. (p. 1-35).
  • Whitmont, Edward C. (1969). The Symbolic Quest. Princeton University Press.

External links

Template:Analytical psychology

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